GamePro Per Box
Read all the specs and indications below! Number of tubes per box = 12. Number of pills per box = 252.
- Dosage And Directions For Use
Wildlife Pharmaceuticals is putting forward a great new probiotic supplement to benefit the game industry.
The challenges we often face:
Game relocation, short and long-term confinement and supplementary feeding are fundamental aspects of the game industry. Free ranging animals are subjected to seasonal variation in the quality and quantity of food they have access to; while captive and semi-captive animals are subject to changes in their diets based on the availability of regular plant-based material.
Plants provide a relatively small yield of nutrients when taking into consideration the complicated digestive mechanisms by rumen microbes to digest the plant fibre. Selecting feed that is high in protein and low in fibre content is preferred as this will not only optimize the nutrient and energy intake of the animals but will also reduce retention time and subsequently increase the amount of feed an animal can take in. This is however, not always possible.
Changes in the veld type after relocation can result in the maladaptation of free-ranging animals while in captive conditions. Animals are typically placed on a diet of lucerne, hay and pellets, often resulting in initial weight loss. During harsh winter months, free-ranging animals supplement their normal diet by either browsing or grazing, often leading to the increased intake of tannins from over-utilized trees. Game farmers may be forced to supplement such free-ranging diets and frequently different sources of plant protein are used, depending on availability.
The effect of these challenges:
The Rumen Flora:
All of the above challenges influence the rumen flora – the bacteria that play a very important role in the digestion processes of ruminants. In the rumen, the large first stomach of a ruminant, a process of constant fermentation takes place. This requires an anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment, a constant pH and continuous mixing. Fluids come from the large quantity of saliva produced by the salivary glands of the ruminants, which not only plays an important role in stabilizing the pH of the rumen environment but also contains tannin-binding proteins that help reduce the negative effects of ingested tannins. Ingested plant material, made up predominantly of cellulose, is broken down into smaller particles by the rumen bacteria. These bacteria are constantly multiplying and also move to the abomasum, where the enzyme lysozyme breaks down the bacterial walls, making the bacterial protein available for utilization by the animal.
The predominant type of bacteria in any wild herbivore’s rumen is the one that has adapted to breaking down the specific plant types that make up that animal’s diet. Herein lies the problem that often leads to maladaptation and weight loss commonly seen after sudden changes in diet. The predominant bacteria cannot effectively digest the new plant type added to the diet and the bacteria that can effectively do so take a long time to proliferate to significant numbers. The latter bacteria must proliferate to a point where they are capable of effectively digesting the new plant material in the diet and ensuring that this digested plant material is passed into the abomasum where it will become a protein source for the animal.
The Role of Tannins:
Tannins are plant polyphenols and are the most abundant secondary metabolites made by plants. They commonly constitute between 5% and 10% of the dry weight of tree leaves. Tannins are produced by a number of broadleaf forage plants, especially broadleaf species adapted to warmer climates. Grasses typically don’t contain any tannins. Tannins defend the leaves against insects and herbivores by deterring them through reduced digestive efficiency and/or through certain toxicities. In herbivores, tannins decrease protein digestion in the rumen by binding to proteins so that they are excreted in the faeces rather than being utilized by the animal. When ruminants increase their intake of leafy plants there is a subsequent increase in the level of tannins ingested by the animals. This happens especially at the end of winter, during drought periods and in over-grazed areas.
How does GamePro prevent these effects?
GamePro is a combination of probiotics and polyethylene glycol.
Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. In contrast to antibiotics which destroy both the beneficial and harmful bacterial species, probiotics are designed to encourage certain desirable strains of bacteria in the rumen. The benefits of probiotics are especially important in times of drought when weaker or sub-standard pastures and feed are available, when animals are subject to sudden changes in feed type when they are put in camps or bomas, or when animals are
relocated to areas with different veld types that they are unaccustomed to. Times of stress e.g. after relocation, may also cause digestive upsets and imbalances in ruminal microbial populations.
GamePro provides a daily supplement consisting of a wide range of beneficial rumen bacteria in quantities that will enhance digestion of new plant material in the animal’s diet. This will drastically reduce the adaptation time and therefore should prevent the maladaptation syndrome often seen in relocated game animals. It will also, in free-ranging animals, assist in adaptation to seasonal changes since the increase in beneficial rumen bacteria will improve the digestibility of harder plant material.
Laboratory studies have shown the efficiency with which probiotics assist in the digestion of plant material. The picture below shows the difference in pastures incubated with and without probiotics and the difference in digestion is clearly illustrated when looking at the control group at the top right-hand side.
Polyethylene glycol (commonly known as PEG) is an inert molecule that is not absorbed by the gut. The molecule can form stable complexes with tannins, preventing the binding of tannins with proteins. These molecules can even displace proteins from pre-formed tannin-protein complexes in the rumen and result in the excretion of tannins instead of tannins bound to proteins. In recent years, tannin-binding agents such as PEG have become popular as viable methods to enhance the nutritive value of tannin-rich trees and shrubs. By preventing tannins from binding to proteins in the rumen, PEG increases the amount of protein available to animals that are ingesting increasing amounts of plant tannins. This is particularly important in situations such as drought or captivity when tannin-rich plant intake increases.
Field Efficacy Testing:
WPSA has been using GamePro in several trials in camp systems with roan, sable and nyala. We have also used it with great success in boma-confined animals after capture. The use of GamePro has not only improved the body condition of the animals but their faeces has also been observed to become softer – likely due to the improvement of feed digestibility.
GamePro combines the microbial-improving benefits of probiotic supplementation with the tannin-binding benefit of PEG. Observations have found that casting such a supplement over feed reduces the chances of intake, especially in animal that are new to bomas that have reduced appetite (if any) for the first few days. It also increases the risk that only the dominant animals receive an adequate amount of the supplement since they are usually the first to eat. Adding it to drinking water is therefore a more practical choice. To overcome the challenge of dosing, GamePro has been formulated as a slow-effervescing tablet. For every ten animals, one tablet should be added to not more than 100L of drinking water per day. It is not essential that the water is finished or replaced before a new tablet is added. Each tube contains 21 effervescent tablets. GamePro does not appear to influence the palatability of the water and it does not produce a foam as seen with human effervescent tablets.
Gamepro has been developed to maintain healthy rumen digestive processes during normal feeding and when change in diet occur as a result of:
- Changes in food sources during relocation and/or boma confinement.
- Supplementary feeding with different plant sources during droughts.
For every 10 animals, add one table to the drink water daily. Do not dissolve the required more than 100 liters of water